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Excluding the node_modules Folder in Visual Studio WebSite Projects

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If you're working on a client side project that includes an NPM folder with a large number of dependencies and you're using a WebSite Project in Visual Studio, you've probably found that this is a terrible combination out of the box. It results in very slow load times and/or file load errors.

What's the problem?

WebSite Projects (WSP) are a pure file representation on disk, so they show you all files, including the crazy large number of files in the node_modules folder which isn't excluded by default.

WebSite Projects are created and mapped to a folder:

The problem is that WSPs don't have a project file. There's no file mapping, which is one of the primary reasons why it seems like a good idea for client side projects in the first place; nobody wants to maintain and add files manually to a project when managing files externally.

The downside is that you have no control over what gets pulled into the project. There is absolutely no configuration in Web site projects. This affects both the files you see in the 'project' as well as for publishing, although for publishing there is at least some control via a *.pubxml file where you can exclude files and folders from publishing. Unfortunately that's not true for the file content of the 'project'.

In short if you have a massive node_modules folder that folder shows in the project. There's no official, built-in way to limit files or folders - which seems rather silly given that this is such a common use case and we're easily 5 years in from when NPM became a common Web development 'thing'.

Why WebSite Projects?

For most ASP.NET applications I use Web Applications which are functionally opposite - you have all the control over files in a project so much so that you have to explicitly add every single one. For applications that include .NET code Applications that makes good sense. As it does when you actually work entirely in Visual Studio for your client side project where you manage all files through the IDE.

But Web Applications fall apart when files are not added and maintained through Visual Studio.

I use WebSite Projects only for static content sites (main site, product sites), or as is the case now when working for a client who insists that the project I'm working on with other tools shows up in Visual Studio and uses the same source control access.

I'm working work on an Angular 2 project, and although I don't actually edit the Web code in Visual Studio - I'm using WebStorm - due to requirements and the TFS source control in use, the Web site needs to be part of the larger Visual Studio Solution. The Web site is pure client side code, with the API and service projects that the Angular app calls living in completely separate projects. Since I'm modifying files external to Visual Studio a WebSite Project seems like the only reasonable choice.

WebSite Projects Experience

When I created the WebSite Project and added it into the larger Visual Studio solution, I found out quickly how terrible the support for client projects is in that configuration.

I ran into two major issues:

  • Extremely slow load time as VS parses through 20,000 NPM files
  • TFS Errors due to funky filenames (files starting with $.)

Initial load of the project took about 5 minutes while Visual Studio white screened and only eventually returned. When it came back I got a ton of TFS errors for $. files - about 100 of them that I had to CR through.

It's quite remarkable that Microsoft hasn't addressed such a common scenario. Eventually I end up with the node_modules folder in the project.

But - refreshing the folder, or re-opening the solution goes right back to the slow load time and then those very same errors. Seriously???

Solution: Make node_modules Hidden

The solution to provide a reasonable experience is to mark the node_modules folder as a hidden folder. This effectively hides the folder from Visual Studio and it ignores it in the Solution Explorer.

You can set the hidden attribute on the folder only - no need to set it on all the child items. NPM continues to work with the hidden folder, so there appears to be no ill effect for actual package access.

Once I did this the node_modules folder is no longer included in the project and load times are fast:


For source control and TFS, I also had to add a .tfignore with:


to ensure that source control also ignores the folder - it doesn't seem to mind the hidden folder and otherwise would still try to add it. Hiding the folder also prevents Web Deploy from publishing the files.

So, if you must use WebSite Projects, hiding the node_modules folder is the way to go.

I can't take credit for this - I found this as part of a few StackOverFlow posts - but the solution is not clearly identified or searchable, so hopefully this post will make that a little easier to find.

Looking Forward: Visual Studio 15 (VS2017?)

The next version of Visual Studio - version 15 apparently will introduce a new Web project model that's supposed to be a hybrid between Web Applications and WebSite projects.

There is a project file, but files by default add without explicit adding using an exclusion template. This seems like a pretty obvious solution - shame it took well over 10 years for Visual Studio to figure that one out especially since just about any other Web development tool operates that way.

I haven't played with Visual Studio 15 yet, but I really hope this will be a workable scenario going forward. Visual Studio really needs to have an easier way to deal with free form file based sites.

Posted in ASP.NET  Visual Studio  

The Voices of Reason


October 31, 2016

# re: Excluding the node_modules Folder in Visual Studio WebSite Projects

.Net core and VS 2015 has a similar problem.

You can right click and "Hide from Solution Explorer". But that isn't always enough, as it will still try and compile anything it finds in there. So you also have to edit the project.json and add:

"buildOptions": {"compile": {"exclude": [ "some-folder-to-exclude" ]},

Rick Strahl
October 31, 2016

# re: Excluding the node_modules Folder in Visual Studio WebSite Projects

@Charlie - In .NET Core projects node_modules is excluded by default and doesn't show in the solution explorer, so this isn't a problem. This is workable and realistically I have no problems with Core projects. The problem is that I can't use a Core project with older applications at the moment.

I'm hoping that whatever new project type comes along in Visual Studio 15 will be for ALL versions of .NET, not just for .NET Core/ASP.NET Core. I have a feeling it's just going to be for the Core versions.

Eric Newton
February 27, 2017

# re: Excluding the node_modules Folder in Visual Studio WebSite Projects

Rick, that photo is absolutely what I had envisioned of node.js node_modules when I first started getting into node.js

Nice job finding that man! LOL!

April 05, 2017

# re: Excluding the node_modules Folder in Visual Studio WebSite Projects

Yeah, I ran into this with VS2015, very annoying. I just excluded node_modules and things seem to be working fine for the most part, but when I do a restore packages lately it started slowing down and is not always updating everything to the latest available. Very frustrating working with Angular v4 and having a VS2015 project like this.

Randy Riegel
July 31, 2017

# re: Excluding the node_modules Folder in Visual Studio WebSite Projects

Thanks a lot! I'm using VS2017 and ran into this because I loaded a project that was originally written in WebStorm. I hid both node_modules and bower_components and Visual Studio isn't going crazy now 😃

August 09, 2017

# re: Excluding the node_modules Folder in Visual Studio WebSite Projects

Great tip. I noticed how long this was taking and I was like, "I am not even using node!" It did not even show up in VS though in 2017 it just happens on the upload, real annoying. Thanks for the tip!

Steve Harrison
October 24, 2018

# re: Excluding the node_modules Folder in Visual Studio WebSite Projects

Although the trick of hiding the folder didn't work for me in VS 2017, you explained the nature of the problem perfectly, and that's half the battle. Thanks!

May 22, 2019

# re: Excluding the node_modules Folder in Visual Studio WebSite Projects

in this case how are node_modules published? aren't they needed in the runtime env?

Rick Strahl
May 22, 2019

# re: Excluding the node_modules Folder in Visual Studio WebSite Projects

@yaron - I hope not 😃 If you have a node_modules folder you'll want to build your project and not ship the huge amount of content in there, only the bundled and built content. If you build using CI on the server, then you shouldn't send that folder at all but do the NPM restore on the server.

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